Richly illustrated with portraits of imperial sovereigns and their cabinet ministers' with biographical sketches (1863) (14583680887).jpg 2,064 × 1,420; 241 KB [98] She also refounded the Hofkammer in 1762, which was a ministry of finances that controlled all revenues from the monarchy. [b] Maria Theresa developed a close relationship with Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard, who taught her etiquette. [70] However, historians have blamed this treaty for causing the loss of the French colonial empire, since Louis XV was required to deploy troops in Germany and to provide subsidies of 25–30 million pounds a year to Maria Theresa that were vital for the Austrian war effort in Bohemia and Silesia. [145] Although Austria managed to gain the Innviertel area, this "Potato War" caused a setback to the financial improvement that the Habsburg had made. Louis François of France (14 June 1672 – 4 November 1672) Duke of Anjou, died in infancy. She showed her gratitude to Countess Fuchs by having her buried in the Imperial Crypt along with the members of the imperial family. Joseph, however, was never able to establish rapport with the same advisers, even though their philosophy of government was closer to Joseph's than to Maria Theresa's. [81], Her relationship with the Jesuits was complex. Corrections? Not without much hesitation and regret, she issued a decree that removed them from all the institutions of the monarchy, and carried it out thoroughly. [46] Maria Theresa reluctantly agreed to negotiations. : Titre « Roi » de Hongrie et de Bohême, duchesse de Bourgogne, de Milan, de Brabant, de Limbourg et de Luxembourg et archiduchesse d'Autriche; 20 octobre 1740 – 29 novembre 1780 (40 ans, 1 mois et 9 jours) The council of state lacked executive or legislative authority, but nevertheless showed the difference between the form of government employed by Frederick II of Prussia. The order was then expanded to all Jews of Bohemia and major cities of Moravia, although the order was later retracted except for Prague Jews that had already been expelled. [35] It took more than a year for the Diet of Hungary to accept Francis Stephen as co-ruler, since they asserted that the sovereignty of Hungary could not be shared. Therefore as far as possible, the Jews are to be kept away and avoided. Maria Theresa then forced her daughter, Archduchess Maria Josepha, to pray with her in the Imperial Crypt next to the unsealed tomb of Empress Maria Josepha. [80] Although Maria Theresa was a very pious person, she also enacted policies that suppressed exaggerated display of piety, such as the prohibition of public flagellantism. [15], Leopold Clement's younger brother, Francis Stephen, was invited to Vienna. [6] In total, Great Britain, France, Saxony, United Provinces, Spain, Prussia, Russia, Denmark, Sardinia, Bavaria and the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire recognised the sanction. [115], From an institutional perspective, in 1749, she founded the Supreme Judiciary as a court of final appeal for all hereditary lands. La mère de Marie-Thérèse, Élisabeth de France (1602-1644) était la sœur de Louis XIII et son père, Philippe IV d'Espagne, était le frère d'Anne d'Autriche, mère de Louis XIV. Finally, the war was concluded by the Treaty of Hubertusburg and Paris in 1763. Maria Theresa's Rescript of 1779 was kept in force until 1868. Under the terms of the pact, she agreed to renounce her claim to succession to the Spanish throne in return for a large dowry. [128], Maria Theresa was not just critical of Marie Antoinette. [95] Moreover, after Haugwitz was appointed the head of the new central administrative agency dubbed the Directory (Directorium in publicis et cameralibus) in 1749, he initiated a radical centralization of state institutions down to the level of the District Office (Kreisamt). However, such reform was fiercely resisted by the Hungarian nobility. [123] In 1771–1778, a series of "Robot Patents" were issued by Maria Theresa, and these patents regulated and restricted peasant labour only in the German and Bohemian parts of the realm. During the last week of July 1683, Marie Thérèse fell ill. She died a painful death on 30 July 1683 at Versailles in the arms of Madame de Maintenon. [69] Before the war started, Kaunitz had been sent as an ambassador to Versailles from 1750–1753 to win over the French. [72] However, he was appointed only because of his familial relations; he turned out to be an incompetent military leader, and he was later replaced by Leopold Joseph von Daun, Franz Moritz von Lacy and Ernst Gideon von Laudon. [78] She was also influenced by Jansenist ideas. [85] Despite this, practical, demographic and economic considerations prevented her from expelling the Protestants en masse. [45] Marshall Belle-Isle joined Frederick at Olmütz. Ten years later, Maria Theresa recalled in her Political Testament the circumstances under which she had ascended: "I found myself without money, without credit, without army, without experience and knowledge of my own and finally, also without any counsel because each one of them at first wanted to wait and see how things would develop. [7] France, Spain, Saxony, Bavaria and Prussia later reneged. In 1777, she abandoned the idea of expelling Moravian Protestants after Joseph, who was opposed to her intentions, threatened to abdicate as emperor and co-ruler. She had a six children with Louis XIV but he would never love her. [8] The portraits of the imperial family show that Maria Theresa resembled Elisabeth Christine and Maria Anna. [97], In light of the failure to reclaim Silesia during the Seven Years' War, the governing system was once again reformed to strengthen the state. The dowager empresses, her aunt Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg and grandmother Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg, were her godmothers. In 1738, Charles VI sent the young couple to make their formal entry into Tuscany.